How to share a directory over a network using NFS
NFS or Network File System is a quick and easy way to share files between Linux hosts on a network. Client machines are able to mount specific directories on a server machine and access the files as if they are on the client's local filesystem.
Configuring an NFS share is as easy as installing a package and editing a config file. For the steps below I'm using a Debian client and a Ubuntu based server.
Configuring the server
Begin by installing the nfs-kernel-server package if it isn't already installed:
sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server
Next create a directory on the server for sharing:
sudo mkdir -p /home/user/public
The next step is important to allow any user access. We change the owner to nobody in no group:
sudo chown nobody:nogroup /home/user/public sudo chmod 777 /home/user/public
Now edit the config file:
sudo vi /etc/exports
Add a line to the end as shown. The IP address provided specifies the permitted clients, in this case 192.168.1.0/24 allows the entire 192.168.1.X subnet access.
# /etc/exports: the access control list for filesystems which may be exported # to NFS clients. See exports(5). # # Example for NFSv2 and NFSv3: # /srv/homes hostname1(rw,sync,no_subtree_check) hostname2(ro,sync,no_subtree_check) # # Example for NFSv4: # /srv/nfs4 gss/krb5i(rw,sync,fsid=0,crossmnt,no_subtree_check) # /srv/nfs4/homes gss/krb5i(rw,sync,no_subtree_check) # /home/user/public 192.168.1.0/24(rw,sync,no_subtree_check)
Finally, export the shares and restart the NFS server:
sudo exportfs -a sudo systemctl restart nfs-kernel-server
Mounting the NFS share on the client
Install the nfs-common package if it isn't already installed:
sudo apt-get install nfs-common
To mount the share on the server at IP address 192.168.1.199:
sudo mount 192.168.1.199:/home/user/public /mnt/mount_dir
The directory /mnt/mount_dir can be anywhere on the local filesystem. Reading or writing to this location will result in a read or write to the server.
Remember to unmount when you're done:
sudo umount /mnt/mount_dir
That's it. Now you can share a directory over a network with NFS!
Thanks to !robot for this clear and informative guide:
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